Tag Archives: LJ Peretti Square shank pipe

Restoring an L.J. Peretti Imported Briar Square Shank Pot

Blog by Steve Laug

The next pipe on the work table came to us in one of Jeff’s pickups. It is a nicely grained square shank Pot with a saddle stem. The finish is a nice light brown with darker stain highlighting the grain. The pipe has a mix of cross grain and birdseye grain around the sides of the bowl and shank. The stamping is the readable. It is stamped on the left side of the shank and reads L.J. Peretti [over] Imported Briar. The pipe does not have any shape number.  It came from the L.J. Peretti Co. Tobacconists in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. The square saddle stem is stamped on the left side of the saddle with stylized P. The smooth finish had a lot of grime ground into the bowl and some darkening around the sides of the bowl. Underneath the grime it looked like the bowl had a varnish coat. The bowl was heavily caked but the top of the rim and inner edge looked very good. Overall it appeared that the rim top and inner edge of the bowl looked to be in good shape but we would know more once it was cleaned up. The vulcanite square saddle stem was calcified, oxidized and had tooth chatter and marks on the top and underside ahead of the button. The pipe had promise but it was very dirty. Jeff took photos of the pipe before he started his cleanup work. He took photos of the rim top and bowl to give a clear picture of the thickness of the cake and the cleanness of the rim top. He also took photos of the top and underside of the stem to show the oxidation, chatter and tooth marks on the surface. Jeff took photos of the sides and heel of the bowl to give a picture of what the briar around the pipe looked like. There is some interesting grain under the grime.   He took photos of the stamping on the sides of the shank and stem. It read as noted above.   I looked the LJ Peretti brand on Pipephil to get a quick overview of the brand and see what info he had gathered (http://www.pipephil.eu/logos/en/logo-p2.html). He had a brief entry which I have included below as a screen capture.I turned to Pipedia  (https://pipedia.org/wiki/Peretti) for further information and found that the article there was taken from the book  Pipes, Artisans and Trademarks, by José Manuel Lopes’. It is a book I have here so I can double check the entry. I quote:

Peretti is the brand of Robert A. Peretti, then owner of the L.J. Peretti Co., a tobacconist founded in Boston by his grandfather, L. Joseph Peretti in 1870. The first pipes made there date from the 1920s, and Robert began producing them in 1938.

The customers of this well-known tobacco and pipe shop included the former British prime minister, Ramsey MacDonald, and also Bing Crosby, Basil Rathbone, Edward G. Robinson, and Walter Matthau.

L.J. Peretti Co. Established 1870 – Our own line of pipes are famous the world over for their outstanding value. The photos here represent a small sampling of our immense selection of shapes, sizes, and finishes. (N.B. Look at the LJ Peretti website for photos.) Pick a price range, a shape, and a finish. We’ll pick you out a pipe that will be sure to satisfy for years to come. The majority of our smooth pipes are natural or unfinished and will darken over time bringing out their beautiful grain naturally.

Now it was time to work on the pipe. Since Jeff follows the same pattern of work in his cleanup we do not include photos but rather just a simple summary. Jeff reamed the bowl with a PipNet pipe reamer and followed up with a Savinelli Fitsall pipe knife to remove the cake. He scrubbed out the mortise and the airway in the shank and the stem with alcohol, cotton swabs and pipe cleaners. He scrubbed the exterior of the bowl, rim, shank and stem with a tooth brush and Murphy’s Oil Soap to remove the oils and tars on the rim and the grime on the finish of the bowl. He rinsed it under running water. He dried it off with a soft cloth. He was able to remove the lava build up on the rim top and you could see the damages to the top and edges of the rim. He scrubbed the stem with Soft Scrub and then soaked it in Mark Hoover’s Before & After Deoxidizer. The stem was clean but lightly oxidized. I took photos of what the pipe looked like when I brought to my worktable. The rim top looked even better after Jeff’s clean up. Th inner and outer edges were in good condition. The stem surface looked very good with some light oxidation remained as well as some tooth chatter and marks on both sides ahead of the button.   I took a photo of the stamping on the side of the shank. The stamping was clear and readable.   I removed the stem and took a photo of the pipe to give a sense of the well shaped Pot/Sitter. To remove shiny varnish coat on the bowl I wiped it down with 99% isopropyl alcohol and it came off easily leaving the grain looking great.    I polished the bowl and the rim top, sides and shank with micromesh sanding pads – wet sanding with 1500-12000 grit pads and wiping it down after each pad with a damp cloth. I carefully avoided the stamping on the sides of the shank so as not to damage the stamping. I rubbed the bowl and shank down with Before & After Restoration Balm. I worked it into the surface of the bowl sides and shank with my fingertips to clean, enliven and protect the briar. I let the balm sit for a little while and then buffed with a cotton cloth to raise the shine.     While I was working on the bowl the stem was soaking in a new product I received from Briarville Pipe Repair – Pipe Stem Oxidation Remover. It is a liquid of about the same consistency as apple juice. The stem sat in the mixture for 2 ½ -3 hours. I removed the stem from the bath, scrubbed lightly with a tooth brush and dried if off with a paper towel. I was surprised that it was quite clean. Just some light oxidation on the top of the saddle remaining. The bath was dark with the removed oxidation of the previous seven stems. I cleaned out the inside of the stem with alcohol and pipe cleaners. I polished the stem with micromesh sanding pads – 1500-12000 grit pads. I wiped the stem down with Obsidian Oil after each sanding pad. I used Before & After Pipe Polish – both Fine and Extra Fine to further polish the stem.     I touched up the faint P stamp on the stem side with Rub’n Buff Antique Gold. I rubbed it on pressing it into the grooves with a tooth pick and buff it off with a cotton pad.  This well made, classic L.J. Peretti Square Shank Pot/Sitter really is a beautiful pipe now that it has been restored. The rich brown finish highlights the grain in such a way that it came alive with the polishing and waxing. I put the stem back on the bowl and carefully buffed the pipe with Blue Diamond on the buffing wheel using a light touch on the briar. I gave the bowl and the stem multiple coats of carnauba wax on the buffing wheel and followed that by buffing the entire pipe with a clean buffing pad. I hand buffed the pipe with a microfiber cloth to deepen the shine. The finished Peretti Pot is a beauty with combination of great grain and rich stain. It fits nicely in the hand and looks very good. Give the finished pipe a look in the photos below. The dimensions of the pipe are Length: 5 ½ inches, Height: 1 ¾ inches, Outside diameter of the bowl: 1 ½ inches, Chamber diameter: 7/8 of an inch. If you are interested in adding this pipe to your collection send me a message or an email. Thanks for reading this blog and my reflections on the pipe while I worked on it. There are many more to come!

Another L. J. Peretti of Boston – Square Shanked Rhodesian

Blog by Dal Stanton

When Jon put the L. J. Peretti out on the table I was excited.  I was in Oslo, Norway, where I met up with two colleagues who work in Ukraine – we were there watching a world class biathlon event and we had a great time.  Jon knew that I was restoring pipes for the Daughters of Bulgaria and had a couple pipes that he was no longer smoking.  He picked the Peretti up off eBay some time ago and he passed it on to me to restore for a new steward – a task I was more than willing to take on!  I grew a bit attached to the Boston-based Tobacconist L. J. Peretti Co., when I restored my first Peretti which my son had gifted me for Christmas.  It was a challenge as I salvaged the original Peretti stamp on the surviving squared saddle stem half and added the other half by cannibalizing another stem and accomplishing a stem splice.  For a look at this project look here:  Peretti Square Shanked Billiard.  I brought the ‘new’ L. J. Peretti home to Bulgaria and the first picture below shows the two Perettis – a remarkable resemblance in the sharp squared shanked style.In the interest of full disclosure, when I first saw the ‘new’ Peretti in Oslo, I really wasn’t sure what the shape classification would be.  The first indicator I cued on was the double groove – Bulldog?  Then, the classic Bulldog usually has a diamond shank/stem.  Rhodesian?  The squared shank didn’t fit.  Ok, a Billiard or Apple with a cool grooved ring going with the squared shank, which I think is very attractive.  My questions gave way to an email to Steve for his input and his response came very quickly.  His call is a squared shank Rhodesian.  My response, “Sweet!”  That works for me.  When I did my original research on the Peretti name I discovered the genesis of a significant story of Americana pipe history with the establishment of the L. J. Peretti Company of Boston in 1870, the second oldest tobacco shop in the US, second only to Iwan Ries & Co. of Chicago established in 1857 (See: Link).  It started in 1870, Libero Joseph Peretti arrived in Boston from Lugano, Switzerland, putting in motion the historical axis that exists today in an iconic tobacconist shop that continues to serve patrons by hand-blending tobaccos from around the world to taste.  One can take his empty bowl to the shop in Boston at 2 1/2 Park Square and test different blends under the watchful assistance of L. J. Peretti staff – total ‘old school’ and I like it! With an appreciation for the L. J. Perretti Squared Shank Rhodesian on my work table, I take more pictures to fill in the gaps. The left side of the shank is stamped “STRAIGHT GRAIN” and, interestingly, the right side is “L.J. Peretti”.  As is true of my other Peretti, usually the name is stamped on the left side.  This Peretti’s pedigree is on the right side of the shank.  The squared, tapered stem has the classic “P” stamped and in good shape. The chamber shows significant cake and will need to be cleaned down to the briar.  The rim has some significant damage on the right side and significant lava flow.  I will need to clean bowl and rim to see what might be lurking beneath.  The Rhodesian upper dome has cuts – one noticeably dissects the twin grooves.  There’s a good bit of grime in the grooves and at least one lightened fill on the heel – with the flat heel this Rhodesian is also a sitter – a nice feature for the table!  I also detect some dents on the squared shank corners – this old boy has taken a bit of bruising along the way.  The stem shows no oxidation but the button shows some biting and tooth dents – both upper and lower button lips have clench marks.  ‘Straight Grain’ is stamped on the shank and the grain has some striking features that will be visible once the grime is cleaned and things shined up a bit.

I work on the stummel first.  Taking the Pipnet Reaming Kit I use the two smallest of the four blades available to me and ream the chamber, removing the carbon cake build up to the briar. I then fine tune the ream by using the Savinelli pipe knife which enables me to remove residual cake in more difficult angles.  To clean the chamber further, I take a piece of 240 grit sanding paper and wrap it around a Sharpie Pen and sand the surface of the chamber then clean the left-over carbon dust with cotton pads wetted with isopropyl 95%.  The chamber walls appear to be in good condition.  The pictures show the progress. I now use undiluted Murphy’s Soap with cotton pads, a bristled tooth brush and a brass wired brush to clean the stummel surface, scrub the rim and clean the grime out of the twin grooves.  As I’m cleaning, it becomes evident that the left front of the upper dome is scorched from what appears to be the aftermath of using a lighter flame over the side of the rim to light the tobacco.  I do not use a lighter for this reason – it is difficult to angle the flame without bringing damage to the surface briar.  I use matches and bring the flame directly over the chamber and draw the flame directly to the tobacco.  I’ll need to send Jon a note about this!!!  After scrubbing with all available tools, I rinse the stummel with tap water without introducing water into the internals.  With the rim now clean, the extent of the damage is revealed.  The final picture in the set below, on the lower part of the picture shows this damage. Since my day is ending, I decide to hydrate the stummel surface with a light application of olive oil.  I also decide to use a kosher salt and alcohol soak to work on the internals overnight.  I twist a cotton ball and stuff it down the mortise to act as a wick to draw the oils and tars out.  I then fill the chamber with kosher salt and hold my palm over the top and give it a shake to displace the salt.  Using an eyedropper, I then fill the bowl with isopropyl 95% and leave the stummel in an egg crate for stability and turn off the lights.  The pictures show the progress.The next morning the salt, as expected had discolored somewhat and the cotton served as a wick drawing oils and gunk out of the stummel internals.  I follow with a barrage of pipe cleaners and cotton swabs to finish the cleaning job.  The pictures show the progress.I now face the most daunting part of the restoration of this L. J. Peretti Squared Shank Rhodesian.  I take more pictures for a closer look at the problems.  The burn and scorching damage on the rim and upper dome of the stummel are significant.  The rim at the 11:30 position is cratered severely and it appears that the rim burned and the charred part chipped off after becoming brittle.  From this area, down on the left side to the 7:00 position there is damage but not as severe.  My concern is whether there is healthy briar beneath what I’m seeing or has the wood charred more deeply?  If so, a lot of briar will need to be removed to repair the rim via topping, but this could impact the Rhodesian proportional balance between the upper and lower parts of the bowl – divided by the twin grooves.  This repair reminds me of a rim rebuild I did with a ‘Throw-Away Pipe’ that had little rim left.  With a desire to salvage as much of the rim as possible, I will very lightly top the pipe but only to gain the ‘high ground’ of the rim and then fill the craters and divots in the rim with a briar dust and superglue putty.  I want to ‘build-up’ the rim instead of losing it on the topping board and creating a squat-top, disproportionate Rhodesian.  The pictures show the damage and the challenges. It will be difficult to top the rim evenly with the soft spots created by the charred briar.  With the chopping block covered with 240 grit sanding paper, I very lightly begin to rotate the inverted stummel.  I take pictures to mark the gradual process.  When I arrive at the maximum topping progress, most of the rim has found it’s ‘high ground’ leaving the remainder of the damaged areas more visible.  This allows me to strategically apply patches on the rim.  I notice that there is additional carbon on the inside lip of the chamber so I take out the Peretti Pipe Knife once more and scrape the additional carbon exposed by the topping.  The pictures show the progress of the rim repair. The focus for the briar dust – superglue patch will be the 11:00 area (see above).  The remainder of the damage on the inner rim will be addressed by creating an inner rim bevel.  To prepare the area for the patch I clean it with a cotton swab dipped in isopropyl 95%.  Using Hot Stuff Special ‘T’ CA Instant Glue, I mix it with the briar dust until it reaches a viscosity like molasses.  Using a toothpick as a trowel, I apply the putty excessively over the area with the plan of sanding it down.  I put the stummel aside to allow the patch to cure.  I’ll give it a full 12 hours. The next day, the patch has cured well.  I begin sanding down the excess briar dust patch by using a half-rounded needle file to contour the inner chamber part of the patch.  My goal is to reestablish a round rim by blending the patch with the curvature of the inner rim.  After this I smooth and blend the area further with 240 grit paper.  When satisfied, I turn to the top of the rim using a flat needle file to bring the bump of the patch gently down to the briar rim surface.  The surrounding wood is softer and I avoid collateral filing as much as possible.  I follow to further smooth and blend the whole patch with 240 grit paper.  The pictures show the shaping progress. With the primary patch shaping complete, I want to introduce a bevel to the inner rim lip to remove damage as well as blend the entire rim contour – seeking a round rim.  I believe a bevel always ‘up-classes’ a pipe, too!  I use a coarser 120 grit paper to cut the bevel –  careful to remember the patch area is harder and it is easy to dig in to the surrounding softer briar.  After the 120 grit paper, I smooth and blend further with 240 paper. I complete the rim repair by returning to the topping board with a light topping first with 240 paper followed by 600 grit paper.  This ties things together.  The first picture shows the completed patch shaping to mark the progress of the bevel.  I think things are looking good at this point with the rim repair. Unfortunately, upon closer scrutiny, I discover that my topping inadvertently leaned toward the front of the stummel. This is very evident when comparing the twin grooves to the rim pitch (first picture below).  We do not have a parallel alignment which should be the case.  When I looked back at the pictures above showing the incremental topping process, this is confirmed when the front stummel part of the rim was sanding and the shank side less so.  The result I see is the Rhodesian’s dome lop-sided and that just won’t do.  Even though I’ll give up briar real estate, I take the topping board and hang the stummel over the edge of the 240 paper.  I work only the shank-side of the rim which needs to be lowered and leveled with the front side.  Gradually, I find greater alignment with rim and grooves, though there is still a bit of pitch but not as pronounced. It will work.  I reinstate the bevel and I’m satisfied with the progress.  The pictures show the progress. I put the stummel aside and turn to the stem.  I use 240 grit paper to smooth out the tooth chatter on the upper and lower bit and sand the upper and lower button lips.  By removing the superficial indentations in the vulcanite, I am then able to identify what needs to be filled.  After wiping clean the area, I use Starbond Black Medium KE-150 CA glue to drop fill tooth dents in both the upper and lower button lip as well as the upper bit area.  After application of glue, I spray an accelerator on the cosmetic fills.  I do not use accelerator when the strength of the glue is the issue as the use of an accelerator tends to weaken bonds – from my reading.  I follow with a flat needle file to freshen the button lines and then sanding with 240 grit paper to smooth out the file marks and fills and to blend. I then move to sanding the whole stem.  With some great input from Al Jones in a recent restoration regarding safe-guarding the crisp lines and edges of stems, I mount the stem to the stummel with a plastic disk I fabricated between the two.  This keeps the sanding from creating shoulders over the edge of the vulcanite.  I also wrap the 240, then 600 grit paper around a clothespin half to create a flat sanding surface to guard the sharp edges of the squared shank square and not rounding them.  After completing the sanding, careful to guard the Peretti ‘P’ stem stamp, I buff the stem with 0000 steel wool.  The pictures show the progress.Turning to the internals of the stem, I use pipe cleaners dipped in isopropyl 95% to clean the airway.  I notice that the pipe cleaners have difficulty passing through the slot so I widen it a bit using a rounded needle file against the upper and lower slot opening.  That did the trick.  Pipe cleaners move freely and now, cleanly.  Pictures show the progress.With the stem repairs completed and the internals cleaned, I’m ready to commence the micromesh pad cycle on the LJ Peretti’s squared shank.  Using pads 1500 to 2400 I wet sand the stem.  I follow by dry sanding with pads 3200 to 4000 and then 6000 to 12000.  With each set of 3 pads I apply Obsidian Oil to the stem which revitalizes the vulcanite.  The pictures show the amazing vulcanite ‘pop’ emerging. I put the stem aside to dry.With the stummel showing scorching damage on the upper dome extending downwardly over the grooves, I take another picture for a closer look.  I use a medium grade sanding sponge to address the damaged area.  I need to remove the charcoaled wood and get down to healthy briar beneath the surface.  To aim for uniformity throughout the stummel, I use the sanding sponge on the entire surface, careful to guard the nomenclature on both sides of the shank.  I follow the medium grade sponge with the light grade sanding sponge to finish addressing the charred wood and minor cuts and pits on the stummel surface.  It looks good.  The shank stamping, STRAIGHTGRAIN, is starting to show itself as the grain shows through the once scorched dome area.Taking micromesh pads, I now wet sand the stummel using pads 1500 to 2400.  Following this, I dry sand using pads 3200 to 4000 then 6000 to 12000.  Wow.  I cannot believe the grain making an appearance on this L. J. Peretti Rhodesian.  The pictures show what I watch emerge through each micromesh pad cycle. To get a big picture look at the Peretti, I reunite the stummel and stem.  As with my last Peretti restored, I like the squared shank’s flow from stummel as it tapers out through the stem.  This Rhodesian’s stem tapers whereas my other Peretti Billiard has a squared saddle stem.  Both, very nice variations of the same concept – a classy shank style. Because of the beauty of the grain I’m seeing, I’m tempted to stop at this point, and finish up with carnauba – I like the natural briar that much.  The only issue is that I would like to apply a darker brown shade of dye to better blend the patch and repair of the rim which stands out as is.  The pictures show the story.In preparation for the staining phase, I use a sharp dental probe and run it through the grooves to dislodge any briar dust from the sanding process.  There is a good bit of compressed residue coming loose.  I follow by wiping down the stummel with a cotton pad wetted with isopropyl 95% to clean the surface.  On the stummel heel, I detect one lightened fill.  I darken it with a stain stick to encourage blending.  I also touch up the patch fill on the rim to help blending and masking the patch after dye is applied.  Pictures show the preparation steps. To stain, I use Fiebing’s Dark Brown Leather Dye mixed with isopropyl 95% at 50/50.  I use a large dropper to do the mixing in a shot glass.  With the mixture ready, I heat the stummel using the air gun expanding the briar making a better receptor for the dye.  When heated, I use a doubled-over pipe cleaner to apply the dye to the stummel surface.  I apply the dye liberally seeking to achieve 100% coverage.  When completed, I fire the wet dye which immediately ignites the alcohol in the dye, setting the hue in the grain.  I repeat the above application of dye and flaming after a few minutes.  I put the stummel aside to rest for several hours before removing the fired dye crust.  The pictures show the set-up and the progress.  With the stummel resting, I restore the Peretti’s classic stem ‘P’ with white acrylic paint.  Restoring the stem stamping for me is special, along with guarding the nomenclature – and is why I went through a stem-splice with my first Peretti restore – to save the surviving saddle stem piece with the old, warn ‘P’ stamp.   I apply white acrylic paint to the ‘P’ in a large gob over the area to allow the paint to fully saturate the ‘P’ imprint.  I allow it to dry fully.  Later, when dried (it doesn’t take long), I use the edge of a toothpick and gently scrape the area removing the excess but leaving the paint in the stamp imprint.  Using the side of the toothpick has worked for me as it is a harder surface, yet soft as it’s wood.  The flat area of the toothpick passes over the stamp and does not disturb the paint.  I’m pleased with the results.The next morning, the stummel is waiting to be unwrapped of the flamed crust.  Using the Dremel high speed rotary tool, my tool of choice given the tight quarters of my work table on the 10th floor of a former Communist block apartment building, I mount a felt buffing wheel set at the slowest speed, and use Tripoli compound to apply the gentle abrasion to begin the final buffing stages.  I first purge the wheel of old compound running it against the metal adjustment wrench, then with new compound on the wheel, I apply it to the surface.  I do not use much downward pressure but allow the speed of the wheel’s RPMs and the compound to do the work.  I methodically move over the stummel surface in areas with the sheen of the overhead lamp providing the ‘headlights’ letting me know to spread the compound or apply more to the wheel.  I take a picture to show the felt wheel application of Tripoli compound – I had to stage it because I don’t have enough hands to take a picture and hold stummel and Dremel!  After completing the Tripoli cycle, I lightly wiped the stummel with a cotton pad wetted with isopropyl 95%, not wanting to lighten the hue but to blend certain areas on the heel and shank.  I avoid wiping down the bowl area – it looks good.  Dark enough to mask repairs but on the lighter side to show the striking straight grain definitions.Following the Tripoli compound, I mount a cotton cloth buffing wheel dedicated to Blue Diamond compound.  With the Dremel remaining at its slowest speed I apply the lesser abrasion of Blue Diamond compound to buff the surface preparing it for the carnauba wax application.  I reunite the squared tapered stem to the stummel and apply Blue Diamond compound to both.  I know this borders on eccentricity, but as I was finishing the Blue Diamond cycle, I notice that the rim patch done earlier was showing a ridge around the patch, and not flush with the rim.  A bit late in the game to notice this, but it won’t do.  Very strategically, I roll a piece of 600 sanding paper and address the ridging.  I follow with the full set of 12 micromesh pads folded and strategically addressing the area.  Finally, I apply a dark brown stain stick and lightly wipe a cotton pad wetted with isopropyl 95% to blend the area.  Finally, I run the Blue Diamond wheel over the rim and I’m back to where I started.  The patch is visible, but now without the ridges that draw attention to the repair.  Now, the rim is smooth to the touch.  Much better.  Before and after pictures follow this small detour! With detours behind, I hand buff the stem and stummel with a flannel cloth to remove compound dust from the surface before applying carnauba wax.  I then mount a cotton cloth buffing wheel on the Dremel and increase the speed of the RPMs to 2, a bit faster than the slowest speed, and I apply carnauba wax to both the stummel surface as well as to the mounted stem.  After 3 cycles of applying carnauba wax, I hand buff the pipe with a micromesh cloth to bring out the depth of the grain further.

I appreciate Jon giving me this L. J. Perretti while we were in Oslo.  I’m happy to recommission this very attractive Square Shanked Rhodesian – the grain is exceptional and I like the square shank style of both Peretti’s I’ve restored.  The squared shank, not a common Rhodesian configuration, allows this Rhodesian to function like a ‘table sitter’ as well while one plays their card or board games.  If you are interested in adopting the L. J. Peretti Square Shanked Rhodesian, take a look at my blogsite, The Pipe Steward.  As always, all the profits of the sales from my restorations go to help the Daughters of Bulgaria.  Thanks for joining me!


A Christmas Gift in need of a stem splice – L J Peretti Squared Shank Billiard

Blog by Dal Stanton

After a wonderful time in the US, sharing Christmas and New Year with our family, and catching up on ‘grandpa time’ with our two grandsons, my wife and I returned to Sofia, Bulgaria, to find as much snow as we left in Denver!  Two memorable ‘piping events’ transpired while in Denver.  First, the inaugural smoke of the restored 1907 McLardy Gourd Calabash (See: Link) which was filled with a tasty bowl of Dark Star recommended by Steve for the special occasion.  It was a wonderful, cool smoke.  The McLardy did admirably. per1The second ‘piping event’ was a pipe-picking expedition several of my family members (guess who this trip was for?) did to Denver’s huge Brass Armadillo Antique Mall!  We had a great time in search but unfortunately, I found no treasures to bring home.  Yet secretly, my youngest son stowed away his Christmas gift for me which I discovered under the tree a few days later!  He got a great deal and I can see why!  He knew I would have fun trying to breathe new life into the L J Peretti now before me on my work table in Sofia.  I am anxious to get back to work on a pipe and this Peretti is a great starting block for 2017!per2 per3 per4 per6 per7 per8With the obvious need to solve the issue of the broken and missing stem piece, I can easily see what attracted my son to this stummel.  The briar swirls stunningly into fire grain and very distinct and tight bird’s eye knots.  There are a few lightened fills that will need attention and the bowl has significant cake and will need to be reamed down to the fresh briar.  The rim shows some thick lava flow and has minor dents.  Unfortunately, the center swatch of the L J Peretti – Imported Briar marking on the squared shank is worn off – over achieving buffing or wear?  The Peretti ‘P’ is visible on the surviving legacy of the original saddle stem.  I’ve grown to appreciate the enduring marks of a pipe’s provenance and for this reason, this surviving piece of this pipes history needs to be protected and restored!  I’ve been thinking for some days – actually, starting with the opened gift (!) about how to splice a new piece of stem to the survivor?  I haven’t done this particular maneuver before, but I’m sure it can be done!

When I began my research on L J Peretti, I was surprised to discover that it is not an Italian pipe as one might expect with such a name!  In fact, I discovered the genesis of a significant story of Americana pipe history with the establishment of the L. J. Peretti Company of Boston in 1870 (Pipedia citing: Pipes, Artisans and Trademarks, by José Manuel Lopes), the second oldest tobacco shop in the US, second only to Iwan Ries & Co. of Chicago established in 1857 (See: Link). per9Going directly to L J Peretti’s website, now president, Stephen L. Willett provides this historical summary of this Boston icon (Link: http://www.ljperetti.com):

In 1870, Libero Joseph Peretti arrived in Boston from Lugano, Switzerland. Filled with an entrepreneurial spirit and a love for fine tobacco, L.J. established the “Peretti Cuban Cigar Co.” in Boston’s historic North End. In the first two decades of business, the company provided a number of contributions to the tobacco industry and began to blend “house cigars”.

1892 marks the establishment of the Peretti Cigar Factory in Park Square, Boston. For over forty years, the company employed fifty rollers who produced some of the finest cigars in New England. Not only did Peretti’s manufacture blended cigars, but they also created Clear Havana Vitolas such as the legendary La Mirendella.

L.J.’s son, Joseph, aka “The Major”, followed his father into the family business. His primary love was pipes and pipe tobacco. Among his notable accomplishments was the creation of the first “English” blend, called British, in the United States; as well as securing the exclusive import rights to Peterson pipes and Sullivan & Powell tobaccos.

After World War II the third generation Peretti’s, Robert, entered the firm. The original store had moved from the North End to the centre of Boston on Massachusetts Avenue and there were additional stores throughout the financial district of Boston. Robert became a tobacco legend in United States and throughout the world. Most of the more than eighty house blends of pipe tobacco were created by Robert Peretti. His reputation as a blender led politicians, actors, celebrities and gentlemen of all callings to seek his tobacco advice.

I enjoyed reading several comments after the interview of Stephen Willett on The Pipes Magazine Radio Show (See: Pipes Magazine Radio Interview) extolling the fact that tobaccos are mixed in house and one could take his pipe to their shop on 2 1/2 Park Square today, and be guided by experienced tobacconists and test several selections before making a decision to purchase.  My son and daughter-in-law, formerly of Boston, also had the opportunity to explore this historic tobacco shop!

I was still curious about the name, “Peretti”, and its Swiss (not Italian) origins with the patriarch Libero Joseph Peretti’s arrival in the US in 1870 from Lugano, Switzerland.  It did not take long to figure it out when looking at the location of Lugano on a map of Europe thanks to Google Maps.  The Italian influence would be inescapable as Lugano is situated in a slender finger of Swiss land on the southern edge of the Alps with greater topographical access to the Italian planes falling away to its south than to Switzerland proper to the north – through the Alps.  Curiosity satisfied.per10One other question hounds me – the question for each pipe: Where was this particular L J Peretti pipe made?  In Boston?  Per L J Peretti’s website, today pipes with the Peretti stamping are made exclusively by Briar Works in Nashville, TN.  This Peretti, however, predates this association.  Briar Works began operations in 2012.   One possible clue came at the close of Stephen Willett’s interview on the Pipes Magazine Radio Show in April of 2016 referenced above.  Willet was asked about relating a ‘favorite pipe story’.  Willett commented on being in London smoking pipes with a John Redman, who used to make pipes for L. J. Perretti Co.  So, a possible source.  The John Redman Ltd. and British Empire Pipe Co. is cited in Pipephil.eu listing the names produced (Aristocrat, Buckingham, Buckingham Palace, Canberra, Captain Fortune, Dr John, Golden Square, Redonian, Richmond, Smokewell, Twin Bore) but no reference to a L. J. Peretti association.  I sent an email to the L. J. Peretti Tobacconists shop in Boston regarding the provenance of this particular Peretti names-sake before me.  We’ll see if we can learn more.

I was gratified when an email arrived from the L. J. Perretti Co. Tobacconists shop in Boston a few days later.  Here is what I found:

Hello Dal,

We have been sourcing our proprietary pipes from a number of different manufacturers. That said, it is most likely that Arlington Briars made the pipe you have in your possession. Photos would help us identify the pipe further. I will have to look through some of our old content and see what I can find. Hope this helps,



Thankful to Tom for his response, I sent on photos.  Per Pipedia,

Arlington Briar Pipes Corporation was founded in 1919 in Brooklyn, New York, and produced the Arlington, Briarlee, Firethorn, Krona and Olde London brands among dozens of others, primarily acting as a subcontractor making pipes to be sold under other brand names. Among others, in the 1950’s, Arlington turned pipes for the famed Wilke Pipe Shop in New York City. The corporation was dissolved by the State of New York as inactive on December 6, 1978. 

With a greater appreciation for the pipe before me and the rich heritage of the L. J. Peretti name and company, I take another long, hard look at the surviving stem piece.  My goal is to splice the stem by cannibalizing another saddle stem.  My original idea was to see if I could find a piece of stainless steel tubing small enough to insert into the airways of both the survivor stem piece and the new cannibalized piece and connect them – providing a firm connection point and reinforcement for the splice.  Before returning to Bulgaria, I went to a specialized store in Denver with hope of finding such a tube.  They were not able to help me and indicated that I could probably find tubing like I wanted in a medical equipment context….  So, with this idea put aside, my goal is a clean bond using only superglue.  I take another picture of the surviving stem piece and the stem candidate. I want to remove the stinger and after it refuses to budge I heat it with a lighter loosening the vulcanite grip.  It joins the other retired stingers in the bottle. Using a straight edge, block and sharpie pen, I draw a line across the original stem.  It will act as a guide as I cut the vulcanite using the Dremel with a cutting blade.  Well, after starting with a cutting blade, I discovered that it was difficult to maintain control over the blade movement.  I switched to the sanding drum and that worked much better. I’ll fine tune the cut after cutting the second stem. The pictures show the progress.per11 per12 per13 per14 per15I want to cut the donor stem very close to the saddle expansion where the stem is thickest.  This hopefully will give me more wiggle room as I fashion the two stems together.  I use the Dremel blade to do a rough cut to remove the shank side of the stem.  I’ll save this piece to fabricate a breather insert later – waste not want not!  Key to this stem splice working is a proper aligning of the airways while working on shaping the external stem appearance.  Hopefully to accomplish this, to keep the airway stationary, I form a temporary insert stabilizer by cutting off the ends of a Q-tip and wrap the center plastic Q-tip tubing with scotch tape.  I do this to enlarge the circumference of the left-over Q-tip to form a tight fit as each end is inserted into the airways of the adjacent stem pieces.  It took me a few test Q-tips to get the size right.  Now I can gradually shape the external stem and keep things lined up.  In the final picture of the set below, you can see the aligning tube. The pictures show my plan materializing.  I have hope that it will work!per16 per17 per18 per19 per20Now to fine-tune the trueness of the cut stem ends.  I start with the survivor by standing it and eye-balling it next to a straight edge – not perfect!  The first picture shows the leaning tower of Pisa!  Working out of our 10th floor flat, I don’t have all the tools available to me to automate procedures so I must improvise.  I have a miter box that might do the trick.  I take a strip of 240 grit sanding paper and use the miter’s perpendicular position to create a sanding mechanism that should produce a flat, true end.  Moving the sanding paper back and forth while I manually pinch it against the triangle seems to do the job.  After patient, easy back-and-forth motion, the end of the survivor stem piece looks good!  A comparison shot to the leaning Tower of Pisa shot shows the progress.per21 per22 per23 per24The new extension also needed some fine-tuning.  Since there is a taper in the stem and therefore it’s uneven, I cannot use the miter box like before.  I use the topping board with 240 grit paper to bring the angle into proper alignment – I discover that it is not an easy slam dunk to get things right.  It takes several spins on the board following each spin by refitting the extension with the original stem and looking for the gaps between the two pieces.  I need the junction to be as true, tight, and flat as possible for a good bond and a straight stem. After several cycles, I have it about as good as its going to get.  The pictures show the process.per25 per28 per27 per26I replace the temporary Q-tip stabilizing insert with a pipe cleaner inserted through both pieces and linking them up.  The pipe cleaner will serve to keep the airway lined up during gluing as well as guard against glue possibly clogging the airway. I use a narrower, less fuzzy bristled pipe cleaner.  After testing I found that a non-bristled pipe cleaner had too much fuzz and inhibited a tight junction between the pieces.  I apply a little petroleum jelly to the section of the pipe cleaner that may meet the superglue.  This will (hopefully!) keep the pipe cleaner from sticking to the glue.  I wipe off excess jelly because I don’t want it interfering with the glue bonding.  I then apply Starbond Black Medium KE-150 glue to the original stem piece, not too thick and spread it over the junction surface with a toothpick.  My main concern is to allow the bond to settle ‘naturally’ around the airway alignment and have the stem straight.  If gaps appear I can add additional glue later as a fill.  Pulling the pipe cleaner from the shank side I draw the pieces together, align and compress for a few minutes.  I set the spliced stem aside allowing the KE-150 glue to cure.  The pictures show the progress.per29 per30 per31Turning now to the stummel, I take another close-up of the rim and chamber before starting.  I use the Pipnet reaming kit and clean out the moderately thick carbon cake formed in the chamber.  I use 3 of the 4 blades available to me to remove the harder than usual cake.  After the Pipnet blades, I fine tune the chamber surface with the Savinelli pipe knife and then, using my finger and a dowel rod, I sand the internal chamber wall with 240 grit paper.  Finally, I wipe the bowl out with a cotton pad dampened with isopropyl 95%.  The chamber wall looks good – no problems there.per32 per33 per34per35Before cleaning the rim and stummel externals, I take Q-tips and pipe cleaners with isopropyl 95% to clean the internals of the stummel.  Following this, I use Murphy’s Oil Soap undiluted with cotton pads and scrub the rim and surface.  The lava build up on the rim proved to be resistant so I added use of the brass brush to the cleaning job.  The inner rim appears to have burn marks on the front and back of the bowl.  I’ll remove this damage by cutting an inner rim bevel later.  The pictures show the cleaning progress.per36 per37After rejoining the curing spliced stem to the stummel to avoid creating shank shoulders, I take a medium grade sanding sponge and sand the entire stummel surface and rim, avoiding the shank panel containing the L J Peretti stamping.  I follow this with the same regimen using a light grade sanding sponge.  With the sanding sponges, I’m removing small pitting and imperfections from the briar surface.  To clean up the rim further, I cut an initial bevel on the inner rim first using a tightly rolled piece of 120 grade paper.  I follow this using 240 grit then 600.  I closely examine the surface and the sponge sanding did the job so that I did not need to use any super glue for fills. I did use the stain marker and darken fills that had lightened.  The pictures show the initial stummel prep.per38 per40 per39 per41I’m anxious to return to the stem repair to begin the ‘sculpting’ process.  I’m sure that the donor stem that I’m using isn’t the best candidate for a match, but it is the only other saddle stem I have that isn’t already claimed by a stummel here in Bulgaria.  Oh my – it reminds me that I just saw lots of 100 stems being auctioned on eBay!  If only….  I take a few pictures of the spliced stem before I begin. To do the sculpting I use my Dremel high-speed rotary tool and mount the drum sanding tool.  With the Dremel speed set on 2 of 5 (1 being the slowest RPMs) I gently and patiently begin removing vulcanite and shape the stem to give it a uniform look.  The pictures show the progress until…per42 per43…You’ve heard me say before, “As they say, it was going so well until it wasn’t.”  The new superglue bond between the two stem parts simply gave way.  I sat back in my chair looking at the divide and contemplated a visit to my favorite adult beverage.  Before starting this project, I researched through the blogs looking for different approaches and techniques to this specific genre of stem repair – splicing.  Steve has a very helpful Reborn essay, What are the options for repairing a damaged stem?  I could not find anything with the specifics I was facing.  Now with the two pieces before me, I decide to shoot an ‘SOS’ to Steve, even though I know he’s somewhere in the world traveling with his work.  I press the send button, turn off the light,  and head to bed!per44Gratefully, Steve’s reply arrived the next morning referencing another Reborn Pipes contributor, Jacek A. Rochacki, from Poland.  Steve’s email described Jacek’s technique of creating a simple interlocking step between the two stem pieces by filing 90 degree angles out of the upper half of one piece and a corresponding 90 degree angle out of the lower half of the other piece.  Essentially creating a juxtaposed and flipped ‘L’ on each stem piece.  The step will provide more area for the glue to bond as well as distribute the stummel’s weight across the stem rather than at one tension point.  The science behind the technique sounds good, now I need to bring the theory into physical reality!  I decide to use the width of a flat needle file to determine the steps’ widths.  Starting with surviving stem, I score a line to provide a guide for the edge of the step (first picture).  After this, I wedge the stem piece in the miter box and invert the flat needle file and use it as a saw to cut a straight vertical incision half-way into the stem.  Pictures 2 and 3 show this in progress.  I use the Dremel to gradually remove the vulcanite and finish the fine-tuning with the needle file.  The pictures show the progress.per45 per46 per47 per48The other stem piece follows the same protocol.  The whole process took quite a bit of time filing, eye-balling, test fitting and filing again.  The junction I have is not a perfect fit.  Dealing with the odd matching stem pieces presents its own challenges.  The key as before, is to align the airway holes to have as much as possible a seamless airflow.  The final picture in the set below shows the pipe cleaner inserted through the pieces and mimics the natural alignment before bonding with superglue.  In this position, to test the freedom of the pipe cleaner to move, I compressed the pieces at the ‘step junction’ and then pulled the pipe cleaner back and forth to assure as much as possible a good alignment.  The pictures tell the story.per49 per50 per51 per52As before, I use a bristled pipe cleaner with less fuzz, apply petroleum jelly to the pipe cleaner to avoid sticking to the glue, and apply Black KE-150 Glue to the step surfaces. I pull the pipe cleaner from the shank-side to draw the stem pieces together to allow a natural placement favoring a clear airway.  Once the steps fully engage, I compress the steps together to form the bond.  While I apply this pressure, I also give a little pull on the pipe cleaner to assure that it is still moving freely and not crimped at the splice junction.  After curing for 24 hours, I inspect the junction lines and apply additional KE-150 glue where needed to seal the joint.per53-copy per54With the stem splice curing, I turn my attention to the stummel.  Staying clear of the L J Peretti nomenclature on the left shank panel, using micromesh pads 1500 to 2400 I wet sand the stummel.  Following this, I dry sand the stummel using micromesh pads 3200 to 4000 then again with pads 6000 to 12000.  The depth of the briar grain looks good.  The pictures show the progress.per55per56per57I like very much the lighter brown, butterscotch tones of the briar.  I decide to apply a very light stain made up of one part Fiebing’s Light Brown Leather Dye to 4 parts isopropyl 95%.  My desire is to blend the fills on the bowl even though I had already applied stain sticks to these areas.  Using a pipe cleaner folded I apply a generous coat of the dye mixture, making sure to cover the entire stummel.  After applying the dye, while still wet I fire the dye with a lit candle.  This sets the hue of the dye well in the grain.  After a few minutes, I repeat the process concluding with firing the wet dye.  The alcohol in the dye burns off quickly and normally this does not burn the wood.  I did scorch the wood of the rim of a restoration not long ago.  I concluded that the problem was the cork that I had inserted in the bowl to manipulate the stummel while staining – the cork itself was saturated with the alcohol and kept ‘firing’ and scorched the thin wood of the rim…. Ever learning!  Now, I hold the stummel by inserting a couple twisted pipe cleaners in the shank acting as a handle.  The picture shows the final state after the second application of stain.per58I set the stummel aside to allow it to ‘rest’ through the night.  The next day, I’m looking at the stummel and the spliced stem.  I decide to jump into the stem work.  Honestly, as I look at the stem, the word that comes to mind is ‘Frankenstem’.  The stem that I cannibalized was not the best match to begin with.  Changing the positioning of the stem pieces to give the ‘step splice technique’ a chance of working, left a spliced stem with a definite limp.  Yet, I’m not finished and I’ve discovered along the way, there is a lot of forgiveness and flexibility in working with vulcanite.  As the old Timex commercial assured, “Takes a lick’n and keeps on tick’n!”  That will be my mindset as I approach the Frankenstem!  I take some pictures to show the challenges.  The first picture, perspective from the top looking down, shows the greatest challenges.  The stem addition is offset revealing the original stem’s protrusion underneath.  There is also more taper in the stem addition than in the original stem.  My approach as I look at the stem will be to try to create a higher (toward the shank) taper on the original stem (on the lower side in the picture).  This hopefully will blend the mismatch.per59I decide to chronicle the approach I take.  I first work on the ‘straight’ side of the stem (lower) by using a rounded needle file to create a ‘dimple’ that would represent the deepest part of the tapered curve.  It was adjacent to the protrusion on the right side (above in the picture below).  After creating the dimple, I then gradually fan out the dimple with 240 grit sanding paper until I achieve a smooth taper joining the saddle with the button.  I’m pleased with the results of phase 1.per60Phase 2 is creating another dimple on the other side – right at the point of the protrusion sticking out from underneath from the original stem step (pictured better above).  Again, after the dimple is formed with the rounded needle file I use 240 grit sanding paper to fan the taper evenly throughout the stem.  While the stem still is off center a bit, the tapering gives the allusion of a straighter stem.  It seems to me the stem is resembling a fishtail style reminiscent of Stanwell pipes.per61Next, I sanded the upper and lower stem with 240 grit paper to smooth and blend the splice repair.  This is helpful because it enables me to see that there are gaps in the seams of the patch.  In the pictures below you can see the vulcanite dust from sanding lodged in the gaps.  I decide to apply a bit of the Black Medium KE-150 glue to fill the gaps.  Before I do, I wash the stem with water and a bit of dish soap.  I apply the KE-150 then spray the joint with an accelerator that I just brought back to Bulgaria from my time in the US for Christmas. per62per63Putting the stem on the sidelines to cure a bit, I’m anxious to ‘unwrap’ the stummel and look at the briar underneath the fired dye crust.  I take the Dremel and mount a felt wheel and using Tripoli compound, I apply the compound using the slowest speed available on the Dremel.  For detailed ‘how tos’ in using a Dremel for this process, see my essay on Dremel Polishing Technique.  After I finish the cycle with the Tripoli compound, I wipe the bowl lightly with a cotton pad and isopropyl 95% to blend the stain.  After the Tripoli, I change to the Blue Diamond compound felt wheel at the same RPMs and apply Blue Diamond.  Then I take a clean cotton cloth and give the stummel a rubdown removing the excess compound residues which is like powder.  The stummel is looking great even before the carnauba wax application, but I decide to delay the wax application and again turn back to the stem.

To see the big picture, I unite the spliced stem with the stummel.  I like the proportions.  I was concerned that the stem might end up being too short and the L J Perretti becoming a nose warmer.  This is not the case as the picture shows!per64Accelerator is God’s gift to the impatient!  My first time to use it and it is nice – though I understand the downside of using an accelerator is the potential of a weaker bond, at least as I have read. The Black K-150 glue looks good.  I return to sanding the stem to blend the patch and finish the shaping.  With 240 grit paper, I smooth out the superglue fill and even though I can still see the lines, the touch test is the goal.  I can feel no ridge at the junction seams.  Success!  With all this rigorous sanding, the verdict is in – the step splice technique is holding!  I continue sanding moving down the stem removing the sand marks left by the Dremel drum sanding wheel.  I finally arrive at the button and to lower lip is out of line.  I straighten this with a flat needle file and I freshen the button lines while I’m at it.  I use 240 grit paper again to remove the effects of the needle file use in the button area.  Finished with the 240 grit paper, I use 600 grit paper to smooth the stem more and to reveal nicks or gouges that may have been missed.  The last two pictures below show the finished shaping project.  I’m very pleased with the results – the splice is holding well and the newly shaped stem is passable.  Even though the splice seams are visible, they are smooth to the touch and I’m hopeful that as the stem polishing and waxing is completed, the seams will blend more.  I think Frankenstem has been transformed well.  Before bringing out the micromesh pads on the stem, I drop the newly spliced stem into the Oxi-Clean bath to raise the heavy oxidation left in the original stem piece.  Another day is finished. per65 per66 per67The next morning I fish the soaking stem out of the Oxi-Clean bath.  The oxidation has surfaced, and as expected, especially on the original stem piece.  Initially I use 600 grit paper and wet sand the stem removing the top layer of oxidation.  I use a topping board with 600 grit paper to make quick work of 3 of the 4 panels of the saddle stem block (not sure if there is a special name for this part of the stem).  I am careful to protect the Perretti ‘P’ on the other panel by putting my thumb over it as I sanded around it.  I repeated the process using 0000 steel wool.  As always, the most difficult part to rid of oxidation were the vertical ‘rise panels’ above and below the stem.  I’m satisfied with the progress the pictures show.per68 per69 per71 per72With the new day, I’m in the home-stretch!  With so much focus on the stem repair, I only now recall that I have not cleaned the internals of the now spliced stem.  Using pipe cleaners dipped in isopropyl 95% I work on cleaning the internals. After running 2 pipe cleaners through the airway, for a nice change, I discover that all is clean!per73I turn now to the micromesh cycles with the stem.  Beginning with pads 1500 to 2400 I wet sand the stem and follow the set with an application of Obsidian Oil over the stem.  Next, I dry sand using pads 3200 to 4000 followed by 6000 to 12000, following each set with a fresh application of Obsidian Oil. I’m generally pleased with the technique of this splice, but the fine polishing of the two pieces of vulcanite have revealed that not all vulcanite is the same.  I assume the original survivor piece was of better quality than the donor piece.  The polishing reveals that the original is a darker hue of black and it wasn’t evident only until now.  So, we do the best we can with what we have!  The pictures reveal this with a close look.  The stem still looks good and what I’ve been through with it make it even look better!  The pictures show the progress. per74per75per76Before rejoining stummel and stem to apply carnauba wax, I want to re-establish the Perretti ‘P’ stamping on the stem.  Checking with the L. J. Perretti Co. stampings on Pipephil.eu, most stem marks are set with white lettering.  I want to do the same to emulate how this Perretti most likely was commissioned.  Taking white acrylic paint, I dab a bit over the ‘P’ on the stem.  After an hour or so, after dried, I gently scrape the top layer of paint off with a pointed Q-tip which I picked up in the US at Hobby Lobby.  Pictures show the result.per77 per78 per79Rejoining stem and stummel, I apply several coats of carnauba wax to both.  I use a cotton cloth wheel mounted on the Dremel, increase the speed to a setting of 2 and apply the wax moving the wheel in a circular motion over the surface.  After completing the carnauba wax application, I mount a clean cotton cloth wheel on the Dremel and clean buff the stummel and stem.  Following this, I give the entire pipe a hand buffing with microfiber cloth to bring out the luster and depth of the grain even more.

The briar of this L J Perretti is unbelievable – a beautiful display of fire grain and very clear and distinct bird’s eye.  The stem isn’t a perfect rendition mainly because of the unmatched vulcanite creating the splice.  Yet, the ‘step’ technique Jacek provided (via Steve!) is working very well.  The squared shank transitioning into the tapered fishtail-like stem I think is very nice. It works.  I’m thankful to my son for gifting me with this L J Perretti!  I would have enjoyed my inaugural smoke to have been a bowl of a special hand blended mixture from the L. J. Perretti Co. Tobacconists in Boston!  Yet, after taking the presentation pictures following, I settled for a bowl of my favorite Cavendish blend – Lane BCA. Report?  The L J Perretti smoked very well, indeed.  Thanks for joining me!per80 per81 per82 per83 per84 per85 per86 per87 per88